Termez (Uzbek: Termiz/Термиз; Russian: Термез; Persian: ترمذ Termez, Tirmiz; Arabic: ترمذ Tirmidh) is a small city in the southernmost part of Uzbekistan near the Hairatan border crossing of Afghanistan. It is the hottest point of Uzbekistan. It has a population of 140,404 (1 January 2005), and is the capital of Surxondaryo Province.Date of the founding of the city of Old Termez which is located a few kilometers east of the modern city, is not known. In April 2002 there was a celebration of the 2,500th anniversary of the city of Termez.
In January 1893 the emirate of Bukhara gave the land of the village Pattakesar to Russian government to build a Russian fortress and garrison and, a military border fortification, where the Amu Darya river port was built.
In 1928 already being part of the Soviet Union, Pattakesar was renamed and took the city’s ancient name Termez. In 1929, the village became a town.
During the years of Soviet rule industrial enterprises were built and a Pedagogical Institute and a theater were opened.
During the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan (1979–89), Termez was an important military base, a military airfield and a road-rail bridge across the Amu Darya (“Bridge of Friendship”) were built.