Surxondaryo Province (Uzbek: Surxondaryo viloyati, Сурхондарё вилояти, Persian: سرخاندریا, UniPers: “sorxāndaryā”), old spelling Surkhandarya Province is a viloyat (province) of Uzbekistan, located in the extreme south-east of the country. Established on March 6, 1941, it borders on Turkmenistan, Tajikstan, Afghanistan and Qashqadaryo Province. It covers an area of 20,100 km². The population is estimated at 1,925,100 (end of 2005 data), with 80% living in rural areas. According to official data, 83% of the population are Uzbeks and 1% Tajiks. The highest point of Province and also of Uzbekistan is Khazrati Sulton peak reaching 4,643 m/15,233 ft in Gissar Range.
The provincial capital is Termiz with population of 122,900 and the second largest city is Denov (Denau) with 69,500 inhabitants (data for 2005). Other major towns include Boysun, Jarqo‘rg‘on, Qumqo‘rg‘on, Shargun, Sherobod, Sho‘rchi, and Sariosiyo.
The climate is continental with mild wet winters and hot dry summers. The southern part of the province is in the Badkhiz-Karabil semi-desert ecoregion (PA0808), characterized by a savanna of pistachio and desert sedge. The northern portion is characterized by open woodlands (Gissaro-Alai open woodlands ecoregion, PA1306), with characteristic plants being pistachio, almond, walnut, apple, and juniper. Sagebrush is common at lower elevations.
The province has a well-developed transport infrastructure, with 300 km of railways and 2,700 km of surfaced roads. Central Asia’s only river port is located at Termez on the Amudarya River.