Qashqadaryo Province (Uzbek: Qashqadaryo viloyati, Қашқадарё вилояти), (old spelling Kashkadarya Province) is a viloyat (province) of Uzbekistan, located in the southern part of the country in the basin of the Qashqadaryo River and the western slopes of the Pamir Mountains. It borders with Tadjikistan, Turkmenistan, Samarqand Province, Buxoro Province and Surxondaryo Province. It covers an area of 28,400 km². The population is estimated to be around 2,067,000 (2007), with some 73% living in rural areas.The provincial capital is Karshi (Qarshi) (pop est 177,000 inhabitants). Other major towns include Beshkent, Chiroqchi (Chirakchi), Dehkanabad (Dehqonobod), Guzar (G‘uzor), Kitob, Koson, Myrishkor, Muborak, Kamashi (Qamashi), Shahrisabz, Shurbazar, Tollimarjon (Talimardzhan), and yakkabog.
Shakhrisabz (Uzbek: Шаҳрисабз Shahrisabz; Persian: شهر سبز shahr-i sabz (city of green / verdant city); Russian: Шахрисабз), is a city in Qashqadaryo Province in southern Uzbekistan located approximately 80 km south of Samarkand with the population of 53,000 (1991). It is located at the altitude of 622 m. Once a major city of Central Asia, it is primarily known today as the birthplace of 14th century Turco-Mongol conqueror Timur.
Formerly known as Kesh (i.e., “heart-pleasing”) and tentatively identified with the ancient Nautaca, Shahrisabz is one of Central Asia’s most ancient cities. It was founded more than 2700 years ago. its name was officially changed to Shahrisabz in the modern era.