Krasnodar

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Krasnodar (Russian: Краснодар) is a city and the administrative center of Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the Kuban River about 148 kilometers (92 mi) northeast of the Black Sea port of Novorossiysk. Population: 744,995 (2010 Census); 646,175 (2002 Census); 620,516 (1989 Census).
The city originated as a fortress built by Cossacks to defend imperial borders and assert Russian dominion over Circassia, a claim which Ottoman Turkey contested. In the first half of the 19th century, Yekaterinodar grew into a busy center of the Kuban Cossacks. It was granted town status in 1867. By 1888, about 45,000 people lived in the city, which had become a vital trade center for southern Russia. In 1897, an obelisk commemorating the two-hundred-year history of the Kuban Cossack Host was erected in Yekaterinodar.
During the Russian Civil War, the city changed hands several times between the Red Army and the Volunteer Army. Many Kuban Cossacks were committed anti-Bolsheviks who supported the White Movement. Lavr Kornilov, a White general, captured the city on April 10, 1918, only to be killed a week later when a Bolshevik artillery shell blew up the farmhouse he was using as his headquarters.
During the World War II, Krasnodar was occupied by the German Army between August 12, 1942 and February 12, 1943. The city sustained heavy damage in the fighting but was rebuilt and renovated after the war.
In the summer of 1943, the Soviets began trials, including of their own citizens, for collusion with the Nazis and participation in war crimes. The first such trial was held at Krasnodar from July 14 to 17, 1943. The Krasnodar tribunal pronounced eight death sentences, which were summarily executed in the city square in front of a crowd of about thirty thousand people.
The oldest part of the city is Old Downtown Krasnodar, which consists of many historic buildings, several from the 19th century. Buildings have been preserved, restored or reconstructed, and the district is now a substantial tourist attraction.

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