Andijan or Andizhan (Uzbek: Andijon / Андижон; Russian: Андижан) is the fourth-largest city in Uzbekistan, and the capital of the Andijan Province. It is located in the east of the country, at 40°47′N 72°20′E, in the Fergana Valley, near the border with Kyrgyzstan on the Andijan-Say River. It has a population of 323,900 (1999 census estimate).
Arab geographers from the 10th century and later give the name as Andiyon, Andukan, Andugan, and Andigan. The etymology is unknown; the traditional explanation links it to the Turkic tribal name Andi.
The city of Andijan is located at the eastern point of the chain of the first settlements of the early civilizations of Fergana Valley. Study of the history of Andijan began nearly 100 years ago. Historical-ethnographic and archaeological excavations have been conducted by A.K. Pisarčik, V.I. Kozenkova, B. Abdulgazieva, S. Jalilov and others. Detailed archaeological research of the city was carried out in the 1980s by the Archaeological Institute of the Academy of Sciences. Information about the structural and spatial location of Andijan, meet on a topographic map, 1893. At stake were the quarters, mosques, mausoleums, the streets of the city. Archaeologists researching historical locations such as Andijan, Čordona, Sarvontepa, Âkkatepa, Koštepa, Ark ichi, Shakhristan.
In subsequent years, in the process of archaeological research and excavations revealed findings related to 6th-4th centuries BC found that cultural monuments associated with the ancient history of Andijan, are located in the South-Western or central part of the city – at Sarvontepe and its environs. Approximately 4 metres deep was discovered archaeological complex 1 metre wide, built 2400–2600 years ago. Excavations in 2007 revealed that the complex covers several hectares. Naturally, in the context of Central Asia will reclaim the farming population, lived and built large and small settlements close to the water. Andijan is no exception. According to A.R. Muhammadžanova, the term “Andijan” is associated with water. In other words, the term Turkic-Mongol origin, had the meaning “settlement near the saya (water)”.